Marginal costing and its application

This is a well known concept of economic theory. It may be described as the change in total cost which arises as a result of an increase and decrease by one unit in volume of output. Marginal cost is an amount at any given volume of output by which aggregate costs are changed if the volume of output by which the aggregate costs are changed if the volume of output is increased or decreased by one unit.

Marginal cost is synonymous with variable costs, prime costs plus variable overheads in the short run but, in a way, would also include fixed cost in the planning production activities over a long period of time involving an increase in the productive capacity of business. Thus in decision making problems ,marginal costs are related to change in output under particular circumstances of a case.

Theoretically marginal cost and differential cost are the same. If there is no change in fixed cost then both these cost will be same. Thus marginal cost does not include fixed cost at all whereas differential cost may include an element of fixed cost as well if fixed cost changes due to a decision.

Marginal costing is a very important technique of decision making. It is a comparatively new area in the field of accounting but it is gradually gaining more and more acceptance. It is the method of matching cost with revenue to determine periodic income. It is the ascertainment of marginal cost and of the effect on profit of changes on volume or type of output by differentiating fixed costs and variable cost. In this context it is to be noted that it is not a system of costing like process or job costing but it is simply an approach to the presentation of accounting information meaningful to management. in this all cost are segregated into fixed and variable components. only the variable costs are regarded as product cost and are used to value inventory and cost of goods sold.. the fixed cost are treated as period cost and are charged directly to profit and loss account. thus no part of fixed manufacturing cost is deferred to the next period as inventory. while preparing a profit and loss account on marginal costing basis, the variable or marginal cost of sales is deducted from sales valuemand the difference is termed as contribution margin.

Marginal costing application in managerial decision making:

The technique of marginal costing is a valuable aid to management in taking various policy decisions. Following are the few problems where managerial costing analysis is useful:
1) Pricing of products: product pricing is usually considered to be a difficult problem,particularly in non-repetitive production. the problem iss to equate the demand and supply in such cases marginal costing is very helpful. This technique can help management in fixing prices in such circumstances:

a) A trade depression in industry
b) Dumping
c) A seasonal fluctuations.

 

Monica Gupta is Author of Tutor Help Desk is one of the most preferred online tutoring company catering to thousands of students worldwide including US, UK, Canada, India, Australia etc.

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Oil Refining Process Explained

Each of us makes regular use of edible use to prepare various dishes daily. Have you every though why edible oil processing is important for us? There are many reasons but the most important one is our health. Edible oils having high fatty contents needs to be refined before using as cooking oil. The most basic purpose of oil refining process is to remove excess fatty acids and prevent the oils from oxidation. This process is not only intended to remove extra fatty acids, but to remove undesired components, color, and odor which otherwise may cause negative on the taste, odor, and appearance of the product. The extracted oil is thinner without fatty acids, colorless, and odorless. Here I am explaining the complete oil refining process in detail.

Neutralization of crude oil by removing fatty acids: in this process the oil is neutralized by reaction with caustic soda (NaOH) in order to remove fatty acids. Oil is heated up to about 60°C by thermal fluid coils and then stirred by stirrer. Finally, the fatty acids are settled at the bottom as alkali soaps which is known as soapstock from where it is taken out into soap pan.

Removal of impurities and color: This neutralized oil is then passed through another vessel called bleacher where color of the oil is improved by bleaching process with the help of chemicals such as carbon black and bleaching clay. This bleaching process is done under vacuum. After that oil goes for filtration where bleaching clay and chemicals are washed and cleaned.

Removal of unpleasant smell: A deodorizer is used where oil is heated about 110°C through thermal fluid coils and then live steam clean is used to the oil from the bottom steam nozzles. The temperature of oil is raised up to 200 to 220°C through thermal fluid coils. This process is done under vacuum. The smell is removed in deodorizer under this process and then oil is cooled.

Micro filtration: This process is an important part of oil refining process which is carried out in a micro filter closed which makes the final edible oil that is sometimes referred as refined edible oil. This micro filtration process is specifically designed for more effective filtration and best quality of final refined edible oil.

Established in 1951, United is a leading Supplier and manufacturer of Equipment and Turnkey Projects for Oil Seed Extraction, Vegetable Edible Oil Processing, Vegetable Edible Oil Extraction, Biomass Gasifier, Gasification System, Oil Expeller and Renewable Energy Equipment.

Established in 1951, United is a leading Supplier and manufacturer of Equipment and Turnkey Projects for Oil Seed Extraction, Vegetable Edible Oil Processing, Oil Refining Process, Oil Mill Machinery, Vegetable Edible Oil Extraction, Biomass Gasifier, Gasification System, Oil Expeller and Renewable Energy Equipment.

What is Refinancing? | Mint Personal Finance Tips Video

http://www.mint.com What is refinancing and how do you know if it’s a good idea to refinance? Lending expert Tony Wahl explores the best time for you to refinance on your house in this expert personal finance tips video by Mint, the best free app to manage your money.

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When To Seek Assistance For Your Mortgage Payments

There are times when people struggle to make ends meet, no matter your financial situation. Even if you are comfortable, you might encounter a month or two where paying the bills leaves you little left over for fun and recreation. In other instances, the financial challenges are far more severe. Though you might have the option of juggling a few bills or paying one or two things a few days late, you do not want to invite catastrophic problems into the mix. Instead of waiting until the worst case scenario hits, consider contacting someone for support before things get too bad. A foreclosure defense attorney or foreclosure defense lawyer can help you get things back on track, saving you from losing your home or making the transition from homeowner to otherwise a little bit easier. If you have gotten a notice from the back that action is being taken, you need to contact someone right away.

Another instance in which you need professional support is if you are declaring bankruptcy. In some cases, this will not lead to losing your home. Regardless of what the consequences will be, you need to work with an experienced professional if you have decided bankruptcy is an option. There are several things to understand about the process and the laws surrounding bankruptcy. Instead of trying to navigate the system alone, work with someone who knows the way.

If you receive notice from the bank that is not necessarily threatening, but that acknowledges there is a problem, you might need to contact someone. There are a lot of homes “under water” these days. This means the amount you owe on your mortgage might be more than the home is worth. Though your payments are up to date, there are still things to understand about your status. Speak with a professional so you know your rights and what the pros and cons are to continuing payments, selling your home or defaulting on the mortgage.

Those living in an area that sees a huge spike in property taxes might find themselves unable to afford living in their home anymore. Though they purchased the home for an affordable price and the arrangement with the bank is reasonable and affordable, the government steps in and decides to take more money from the homeowner than they have. This is rare. In most places, there are laws against property taxes rising more than a small percentage of what is already being paid. However, if you get a notice about a tax increase and you suspect something is not right, contact a professional who can offer advice.

Finally, if you fall on unexpected personal hardship, it is important to work with a professional who can offer guidance. If you lose your job or experience an expensive health crisis, you will want to do what you can to avoid losing your home. A financial expert can help. Though you might find more difficult than they were before and other bills might go unpaid, an expert can work with you and the bank to ensure you keep your home.

Stewart Wrighter searched the termforeclosure defense attorney Columbus to find a lawyer to help a family member out with financial issues. He searched the termforeclosure defense lawyer Columbus to find a law practice in the area.

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What Is A Refined Carbohydrates

Refined carbohydrates are made through a process that devalues the nutritional content of the product. A normal carbohydrate is known as an organic compound based on the inclusion of carbon. This compound only contains three elements including oxygen, hydrogen, and carbon. The word hydrate in the compound refers to the fact that the hydrogen to oxygen ratio is two to one, the same as in water.

There are many different sizes to carbohydrates. These chained compounds are also known as saccharides and based on their sizes they are split into four categories. The two smaller chains are monosaccharides and disaccharides and are called simple sugars. Most of the time sugars end with the suffix ose, for example the sugar in milk is called lactose.

The other two categories of these compounds are polysaccharides and oligosaccharides. These are important to the formation of many things in a living thing. Polysaccharides help in the storage of energy for living things. Oligosaccharides also have many functions that include cell to cell recognition and DNA genetic material.

In the food industry a carbohydrate is a food rich in sugars and starches. Simple carbohydrates or sugars are found in the desserts and candies that we like to eat. The complex carbohydrates or starches are those foods including cereal, bread, and pasta.

The problem with the process of a refined carbohydrate is that the body can digest the foods so easily. The process occurs when the whole plant of most of its nutritional value except for the sugars and starches. Since the body can break the compound down at such a speedy rate it begins to cause a rise in the blood sugar.

The stripping of the plants causes a problem with the nutrients of the food. Fibers and other materials are important in slowing down the process to allow the body to slow down the absorption rate. Another problem that occurs with the consumption of refined carbohydrates is an increased appetite. When your appetite increase it causes the eating of more food than your body is able to burn. Finally, these type of compounds can sometimes cause a person to become addicted to the foods.

Many times during the stripping process it will cause the grain to become a bright white. Flour, pasta, bread, and rice are all examples of this occurrence. This process is not a natural thing and therefore the body can form many different problems from eating too many of these compounds.

Please visit our site to learn more about refined carbohydrates at http://learnaboutcarbohydrates.com/what-is-refined-carbohydrates

Tend to be Elan’s Margins Missing the Grade?

Margins matter. The greater Elan (NYSE: ELN) maintains of every buck it earns in income, the more cash it offers to purchase development, fund brand new strategic programs, or (gasp!) distribute to shareholders. Healthier margins frequently separate pretenders from most useful stocks in the market. This is exactly why we check up on my holdings’ margins one or more times one fourth. I am searching for absolutely the numbers, reviews to sector peers and competitors, and any trend which will tell me just how strong Elan’s competitive position might be.

Discover current margin snapshot for Elan and some of the industry and business colleagues and direct competitors.

Unfortunately, that dining table doesn’t reveal a great deal about in which Elan has been, or in which it is going. A company with increasing gross and running margins frequently fuels its development by increasing demand for its services and products. If it offers more products while maintaining costs in check, its profitability increases. Conversely, a business with gross margins that inches downward as time passes is often losing off to competitors, and possibly doing a race into the base on costs. If it can not make up for this problem by cutting costs — & most businesses can not — after that both the company and its own shares face a decidedly bleak outlook.

Of course, on the short term, the type of economic bumps we recently practiced can considerably impact an organization’s profitability. That’s why I like to examine five financial many years’ well worth of margins, along with the results for the trailing 12 months (TTM), the past fiscal year, and last financial quarter (LFQ). You can’t always achieve a hard conclusion regarding your organization’s health, you could better understand what to anticipate, and things to view.

Here’s the margin image for Elan within the last couple of years.

(due to seasonality in a few businesses, the numbers for the last duration regarding right — the TTM numbers — are not always similar to the FY outcomes preceding all of them.)

Listed here is the way the stats breakdown:

Over the past five years, gross margin peaked at 62.5per cent and averaged 55.7percent. Running margin peaked at (1percent) and averaged (27.7%). Net margin peaked at (7.1per cent) and averaged (40.4percent).

TTM gross margin is 50.3per cent, 540 basis points worse compared to five-year average. TTM running margin is 7.1percent, 3,480 basis things better than the five-year average. TTM web margin is (27.3%), 1,310 foundation things a lot better than the five-year average.

With bad TTM net margins, Elan obviously is not succeeding. Nevertheless the better running and net margins versus historic averages should offer Elan some self-confidence that things tend to be switching around for the organization.
 

Get latest information regarding Finance and financial investment news. To learn more go ahead and visit www.themoneytimes.com United States market development .

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Free Web Builder that drives consumer spending

Due to many forms of web applications that continuously grow and develop, a lot of industries are using the advantages that it can give in terms of promotions and endorsements. Strategic marketing tools have changed for the past 20 years which is the start of the internet craze. Positive results have verified the impact of these web applications that formulates the kind of approach that is suitable for many markets.

Constrains are hardly ever seen and further improvements more often than not overshadows the restrictions of some database applications. Since I work as a market research specialist I have realized the importance of creating online campaigns in today’s market environment. I have followed a lot of blogs and forums and the one that stands out is Free Web Builder. Being a curious person, I tried navigating through its resources and I was very impressed with the kind of application that it gives to its users.

Now I recognized the appreciation and positive remarks of its users. It tools are very undemanding and the tasks involved in creating a website does not entail complex procedures and program applications. I also love its layouts that are fresh and modern giving a new kind of image for all businesses. Free Web Builder has platforms that can create a center of attention for any product or service. This new marketing idea that captures a lot of attention should be taken into consideration of some markets which are experiencing consumer decline.

It has a perfect format that can be utilized by anyone even if you are not well adapted to new technologies and web design. It establishes the kind of understanding that the buyers and sellers are looking for and it also drives and pushes consumer spending in a conventional way. The flash website that Free Web Builder provided, can increase trade and outputs that can help many industries to launch a new strategic marketing approach in any given situation.

Yoav Rosenberg is a amateur photographer, art enthusiast and article writer. he works as freelance SEO and SEM specialist ,He is interested in expanding his knowledge on how to use Free Web Builder and is excited to contribute his own tips on the subject.

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Things to Know About Credit Cards For Bad Credit

Credit Cards For Bad Credit  become important in best households. Abnormally in times of emergency back you charge quick admission to money.  Acclaim agenda is a band-aid to bodies who are abashed of accustomed banknote to the stores. It is actual alarming to backpack banknote back you go arcade at the store, abnormally back there is an abridgement recession. You accept to be anguish about your money because there are robbers everywhere. Managing your acclaim agenda or in abounding cases acclaim cards does crave a assertive akin of conduct and restraint.If You applying for a acclaim agenda these canicule can prove to be added challenging.  If you accept bad acclaim again this action becomes alike added difficult. Best of the banks accept implemented austere behavior and requirements for acclaim cards applications. This is mainly due to the accompaniment of the abridgement and the accelerated access in the bulk of bodies with bad acclaim agenda in the U.S.

Buying acclaim cards for bad acclaim is now accessible by the ambit of account providers who specialize in this field.  Due to the bulk of accessible account providers specializing in acclaim cards for bad credit, it is acute that you acquisition a provider that does business with ethics. There is no curtailment of abhorrence belief about bodies who accept been taken advantage of by arguable account providers. suprisingly there are a cardinal of companies that specialize in acclaim accessories for bad acclaim who action reasonable absorption ante and attach to ethical business practices.

Bad Credit cards are a admirable advantage for bodies who demand to use Credit cards but cannot get a acceptable Credit agenda because of their poor Credit history. Even admitting there are hundreds of companies giving abroad these Credit cards to bodies but it’s your albatross to accomplish abiding you are accepting the best out of your money. These are some of the checks you allegation to accomplish afore activity in for a bad Credit card

It is accessible that if you get a Credit agenda admitting your poor Credit history, you are activity to carapace out a lot added than you should in agreement of college absorption rate.  Special affliction should be taken while allotment a Credit agenda and you should chase accomplish to abbreviate your absorption rate.If your Credit history is absolutely bad again it would be acutely adamantine for you to get an apart Credit card. This agency that you may accept to go for a anchored Credit agenda which agency you will accept to accomplish a abundant antecedent drop which will be acclimated by the coffer in case you abort to pay the installments.

Before activity for any Credit Cards For Bad Credit accomplish abiding that the agenda arising aggregation letters all your affairs to the federal agencies.Also accomplish abiding that you get abundant adroitness aeon to pay your bills. Many times barter are larboard with no adroitness aeon by the time they accept their bill. Accomplish abiding you don’t abatement into the aforementioned trap.One added affair you allegation to accede afore purchasing bad Credit cards is that you shouldn’t pay any alpha up fees. Some companies allegation their barter accidental alpha up fees. Beware of such companies and boutique around.
 

Davidpieter is expert for Credit Cards For Bad Credit
 

Cut Cost Margins with a Freelance Bookkeeper

When you are a small business owner, you need to look into doing things like looking into a freelance bookkeeper. There are many people that are considering a freelance bookkeeper today and are looking at the benefits of this. What you will find is that having a bookkeeper is not a choice; it is something that you need to have, and there are many factors that should lead you to making this decision.

• Are You Spread too Thin?

For most small business owners, their to-do lists are constantly growing. In general, you do not want to spend the majority of your day doing bookkeeping; you want to spend it getting more business in the doors. Since you are the person that keeps things moving, do not bog yourself down with bookkeeping.

Hiring a freelance bookkeeper can also help you with everyday things that are going to pile up. You will find that a bookkeeper helps you keep your business running and keeps everything in line. It is so important to understand that you cannot put off your bookkeeping and accounting. Doing this can actually cause you to potentially put yourself at risk of breaking laws, getting behind on your taxes, and many other hassles you just do not want to deal with.

• A Freelance Bookkeeper Is What You Need

For the aforementioned reasons, you need a freelance bookkeeper. Not only will a bookkeeper that you hire as a freelancer save you money and save you time, but they will also help keep everything secure and in line. People sometimes overlook the fact that their books need to be kept meticulously and sometimes that is something that a business owner is not able to do effectively. If you don’t have the budget to hire someone to come into the office and keep the books, or if it isn’t a full time job for your organization, freelancing this position is a great idea.

• Save Money With a Freelance Bookkeeper

When you are looking at a bookkeeper that is a freelancer, you are basically looking at making a contract with an outsourcing service. These services are going to be able to help you with everything from your daily to your yearly bookkeeping services. The nice thing is, when you choose to outsource your bookkeeper, they are going to bill you hours, so you are only paying for the hours that they bill, not those hours they may have sat in the office and twiddled their thumbs.

• Know Everything Is Done Correctly

The great thing with hiring a freelance bookkeeper that is from a reputable company is that you can go on with your day by day activities and know that your bookkeeping is being done correctly. Pay for bookkeeping when you need it and know that you are getting a person that specializes in it instead of a person that can do it all but may not give your books the attention that they need.

The most important thing with a bookkeeper is that it is done accurately and correctly. For this reason, you want to use freelance bookkeepers to ensure that your books are done correctly. There are many reasons why people are using the options for a freelance bookkeeper and you will love getting a bookkeeper that is a lot more affordable and will get the work done accurately.

Many offshore bookkeeping firms offer Freelance Bookkeepers. There are many reputed Freelance Bookkeeping Firms that cater to small and medium businesses and CPA Firms worldwide.

Many offshore bookkeeping firms offer Freelance Bookkeepers. There are many reputed Freelance Bookkeeping Firms that cater to small and medium businesses and CPA Firms worldwide.

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Start own business

Entrepreneurship

One who starts own business in his/her own risk and using the available resources can be called as an Entrepreneur. The state of being an entrepreneur is entrepreneurship. By the result of this entrepreneurship many international companies like Google Inc., Facebook have born.

Starting points

Entrepreneurial activities are substantially different depending on the type of organization and creativity involved. Entrepreneurship ranges in scale from solo projects to major undertakings creating many job opportunities. Today many entrepreneurs start their business individually and make it as a firm or an international company finally. This transformation includes many mental and physical aspects like confidence, money etc. Be sure you have selected the right business.

Field Knowledge

While starting a new business you might know something about the field to tackle the problems arise in a technical way. Unless it will be a great lose for you. This pre-knowledge can be gained either by the previous experience or academic studies. Anyhow, you should have previously touched the field before. Work for someone else in your intended business before starting your own company. This will give you an experience too. Besides this you might have support from your family and friends.

Field knowledge is not only consists the basic knowledge to start the business but also knowing the competitors’ activities in the field.

Resources

To start an own business the money resource is very important. It decides the business you are going to start. This money can be a loan, family supported asset, investment etc. Choosing the right business is as important as the money. It draws your future. While starting a business with many people, you must have the man-power.

Market demand study will give us the better results. Having the market demand as your step to success you can succeed easily.

Special kind of Business

Many kind of businesses can be done at free hours from home itself. It makes an extra income. These type of special businesses mostly offered by a company or firm to make them to concentrate on works which have high priority. But to the entrepreneurs it is an experience and a source of income too. There are few things more satisfying and rewarding than launching and owning your own home-based business, but before diving in, be sure to do your homework. Making a business work is not an easy task, but proper planning will help to increase its chances of success.

Start own business today. We are offering highest profit for you, which no other company can give. There is no need to deposit any amount to start your sales. If you are interested, don’t waste even a single minute. You can earn from home.

Mortgage rates fell to lowest for 10th time, 4.32 percent

U.S. mortgage rate fell to the lowest level for the tenth time in 11 weeks as yields on government debt dropped and investors concerned about the economy.

 

Freddie Mac (OTCBB: FMCC), a government sponsored enterprise (GSE) of the United States federal government, said Thursday that interest rates on U.S. 30-year fixed mortgage, the most widely used loan, was 4.32 percent the week ended September 2, down 0.04 percent compared to the last week. 4.32 percent is the lowest since The Federal Home Loan Mortgage Corporation (FHLMC) started tracking rates in 1971.

 

In term of the average on 15-year fixed loan, the rate was down 0.05 percent from the last week. There have been decline in rates since springs as investors have moved to Treasury bonds for the shake of safety, which has lowered their yields. Mortgage rates haves a connection with yields on Treasuries on mortgage-backed securities.

 

15-year mortgages averaged 4.54 percent, the one-year ARM 4.62, and the 5/1 ARM 4.59 percent a year earlier.

 

Amy Crews Cutts, Freddie Mac deputy chief economist, said in a statement that the price growth of core personal expenditures in one year kept unchanged at 1.4 percent in July.

 

Federal Reserve Chairman Ben Bernanke also said that inflation should remain near current readings for some time before rising slowly amid growing economy and reasonably stable inflation expectations.

 

Refinancing is at its highest level since May 2009. However, a wave of refinancing from borrowers appeared due to the low rates, with almost 83 percent of all new loans.

 

Mortgage applications increased 2.7 percent last week as investors have been seeking lower rates. Nevertheless, the rock-bottom rates could not lift the slumping real estate market up, offering a glimmer of hope for the market. It has failed to find footing in the aftermath of the expiration of popular home buyer tax credits.

 

It is over a decade since home sales have been at its lowest level, tumbling in recent months while home prices are forecast to trek downward again due to increasing supply of homes and mounting foreclosures. Potential home buyers are reluctant to purchases amid fragile economic growth and high unemployment rate. They may be waiting for even lower home prices.

 

Certainly, home sales are greatly impacted by the lowest mortgage rates in decades. However, home purchase demand remains muted, according to Diane Saatchi, senior vice president at Saunders & Associates in Bridgehampton, New York.

 

The second-largest U.S. mortgage finance company got mortgage rates together from lenders countrywide from Monday to Wednesday of each week to calculate the national average. There is a dramatic fluctuation in the rates even within a given day.

Economics is the study of our lives,our jobs, our homes, our families and the little decisions we face every day. Thus, I am keen on reading and studying economic issues.